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Sunday, May 11, 2008

KACHRU'S THREE CONCENTRIC CIRCLES: VARIATIONS OF NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE ENGLISH

BY ALIXANDER HABAN ESCOTE


During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), about five to seven million people out of the world’s 500 million population spoke English. Today, there are more non-native speakers than native speakers, and English has become a linguistic apparatus, a global medium with local messages and identities. It is also widely spoken by less than two billion people worldwide (Hohenthal 1, Are Immigration Preferences for English Speakers Racist? 1).

English has deeply penetrated in 60 countries and this resulted to native and non-native varieties. The development of new varieties, also called “new Englishes” or “world Englishes,” is connected with historical, sociolinguistic, and political and educational contexts. New Englishes have their own context of usage and function, and they have also affected “old Englishes” or native varieties of English (Hohenthal 3).

In his seminal papers and miscellaneous writings, Braj Kachru discussed the spread of English around the world in terms of three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. Annika Hohenthal explained that the concentric circles represent different ways where English has been acquired and is currently used (The Spread of English Around the World 1). Judy Yoneaka pointed out that the concentric circles fight for equal recognition of all English varieties no matter how they are classified and no matter where they are found in the world (4). In Kachru’s words, “the concepts of the three concentric circles helps us in understanding the pluralism and the institutionalization of English across cultures and languages” (7).

According to Kachru, the inner circle refers to traditional historical and sociolinguistic origins of English where it is used as a first or native language—Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States—with about 400 million speakers, almost 70 percent of which are from the United States (The New Englishes 1, English as International Language 7).

On the other hand, the outer circle includes countries colonized by Britain and the United States where English is spoken as a second language and plays an important historical and governmental role in multilingual settings like India, Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Jamaica, Zambia, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Bangladesh, South Africa, the Philippines, among other countries in the world, with more than 400 million speakers (The New Englishes 1, English as an International Language 7).

Not colonized by Britain and the United States, countries in the Expanding Circle did not institutionalize English as an official language but recognized the importance of English as a foreign language. These countries includes Israel, Japan, China, Egypt, Korea, Nepal, Russia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Zimbabwe, Saudi Arabia, Western Europe, Caribbean countries, and the South African continent with more than one billion speakers (The Spread of English Around the World 2).

Hohenthal explained that the term “new Englishes” is used for “diaspora varieties” that have evolved from the Outer Circle. In historical and sociolinguistic sense, these varieties, although not relatively new, are called “new Englishes” because it is only recently that they were linguistically, and literature wise, recognized and institutionalized, although they have a long history of acculturation in historical, sociolinguistic, and political and educational contexts different from the Englishes of the Inner Circle (The Spread of English Around the World 3).


HISTORICAL CONTEXT

The spread of English is closely related to the expansion of the British Empire (English Language 1). In the Nineteenth Century and in the early Twentieth Century, Britain became one of the world’s leading trading and industrial nations and one of the world’s biggest colonial and military powers (Dürmüller 16). Consequently, British settlers, soldiers, merchants, and administrators carried their language to every continent (English Language 1).

In the middle of the Seventeenth Century, Britain completely conquered Ireland and became its first colony in Europe. The British Empire then took control of India and Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand, North America and the Caribbean, and other large areas in the African continent. The British Empire also controlled strategic ports and islands in almost every corner of the world from Malta, Cyprus, and Gibraltar to Singapore, Hong Kong, and the Mediterranean (English Language 2).

The British Empire’s continuing expansion in Asia, Africa, and the Oceania helped spread English beyond the original English-speaking colonies. Even though the United States colonized Guam, Alaska, Hawaii, the Philippines, and across the North American continent, Britain had already colonized about one quarter of the world by 1918 (English as an International Language 8).

In the second half of the Twentieth Century, American related factors encouraged the spread of English: the military and the economic powers of the United States, the affiliation of the world with much American culture and civilization, the concentration of scientific and technological advances in American universities and corporations, and the development of information superhighway and of new communication technologies like telegraphy, the Internet, and wireless telephony (Dürmüller 17).


SOCIOLINGUISTIC CONTEXT

According to Kachru, there are two types of linguistic communities: the norm-providing varieties with English as a native and a second language and the norm-dependent varieties with English as a foreign language or an international language (Kachru 9, Yoneaka 69).

In “Englishes in Asia,” Judy Yoneaka enumerated five criteria to define what makes an English variety: (1) words and phrases are coined to express key features of the social and physical environment; (2) standard and recognizable pattern of pronunciation is handed down from one generation to another generation; (3) literatures were written without apology in the native variety; (4) the variety is peculiar because of the history of the language in the speech community; and (5) dictionaries, style guides, and reference materials are published to show people in the speech community what is right and what is wrong (70).

The first two criteria are sufficient to define English as foreign language varieties, while the latter three differentiate English as a second language from English as a foreign language, providing their independence to create their own norms and standards. Kachru called English as a second language as “functionally native” for the expression of national identity and for communication across cultural and sociolinguistic boundaries (Yoneaka 71).

As regards to the definition that English as a second language is “functionally native,” Kachru said that the “distinction that has been drawn conventionally between native speakers and non-native speakers is becoming blurred and increasingly difficult to operationalize” (qtd. in Yoneaka 90). In addition, Yoneaka said that world Englishes reject the traditional dichotomy of native and non-native varieties and replaces it with pluricentric and multicultural English in a spirit of equality and shared communicative responsibility (90).

This shift to terminology, i. e., from English to Englishes or new Englishes or world Englishes, has been full of conflicts. In Kachru’s words, “this terminological feud is not innocent; it is loaded with ideologies, economic interests, and strategies of power” (qtd. in Singh 20). This was so, Amarjit Singh explained, because language has always been a fundamental position of struggle for social, cultural, political, and economic control (21).


POLITICAL AND EDUCATIONAL CONTEXTS

According to Kachru, the spread of new Englishes was through the classroom, at least initially (The New Englishes 13). In Southeast Asia for example, given the diversity of official languages and sociolinguistic profiles, English is taught in classrooms because government policies promulgated it, making oral and written communication possible. Although each country has its own reasons for teaching and learning English, the language is spread in the region through education and other means (Ho 6).

Unlike Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia, Cambodia, and Lao People’s Democratic Republic where English is a foreign language, English in Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam, is a second, if not official, language, and significantly, is associated strongly with their colonial past and history. Generally speaking, children in these countries learn English early in primary schools or even in preparatory schools. Except in Malaysia, English is the medium of instruction in most subjects, if not in all subjects, except other language subjects (Ho 7-8).

In the Philippines, English is a second language and is maintained as a language of international communication. It is taught as a compulsory subject and is a medium of instruction in all subjects from primary to tertiary schools. Filipino is propagated as a language of literacy and scholarly discourse and a linguistic symbol of national unity and identity (Ho 33).


N. B. This feature article was written using the Modern Language Association documentation format. List of works cited are available upon request.

56 comments:

Alex Case said...

"New Englishes have their own context of usage and function, and they have also affected “old Englishes” or native varieties of English (Hohenthal 3)."

This is minimally true at best, and "old Englishes" have been much more affected by other languages such as Spanish than they have by new Englishes.

One other quibble is that you have China in both the outer and expanding circles. Otherwise a nice summary of the topic with a good range of sources.

ALIXANDER HABAN ESCOTE said...

Alex Case, yes, you are correct. I inadvertently included China in the Inner Circle. It should only be in the Expanding Circle since it was not colonized by the United States or the United Kingdom . I stand corrected and I'll rectify it. Thank you very much for your comments.

Anonymous said...

this topic is quite interesting,so i wonder whether i could get me the works cited list. my e-mail: james.chu@163.com.

ALIXANDER HABAN ESCOTE said...

Hi, I assume that your name is James Chu. The post in my blog was a sanitized version of the paper that I submitted for my Variation of Native and Non Native English class at the University of the Philippines in Diliman, Quezon City, years ago. I sent via your e-mail address the work cited page of the said paper. Please delete the works not included in the blog. If you will use my paper, please cite it and let me know by sharing it in this blog. Thank you very much for visiting my blog. Cheers!

ALIXANDER HABAN ESCOTE said...

Hi, James, I tried twice to send you the works cited page but it said "There was a problem! The recipient info doesn't seem quite right. Please look it over and try again."

Please check your e-mail address. Once again, thank you very much for visiting my blog. Cheers!

Rayalyn Perlada Mongaya said...

The article is all about the Englih language. It has two kinds, the native English and the non-native English. The article is informing the readers about the English language. The author explained in a very detailed and nice way.

Many countries use this language as their official language and others as their secondary language. Language has always been a fundamental position of struggle for social, cultural, economic control, and other things. Language can help one country to become progressive and to improve their economic state.

English, nowadays, is very popular because this is the language used for international communication. This is also the medium of instruction for all the subjects in school, as well as other language subjects. Here in the Philippines, English is our secondary language. It is taught as a compulsory subject. This language helps our country to communicate with other countries. This is also the language used in business and other matters related to it. It can help an individual to improve himself or herself. After knowing all of these things, I believe that we must improve and practice speaking in English.

Charmaine Moralla Kilapkilap said...

This article shows the development of the English language from a national language spoken only by native speakers, to an international language and a global medium.

It filled me with awe and amazement upon learning its historical background which is concerned mainly with the spread of the English language. If it had not been for the British Empire, the English language would have not acquired one quarter of the world by 1918.

But I do appreciate its role as a linguistic apparatus, a communication medium for people to interact with each other regardless of their race. However, I can not deny the fact that I am disappointed for the obvious reason that most Filipinos, especially those who belong with the higher classes, prefer the English language rather than the Filipino language. I understand that we must study or use the English language to improve our way of life and to develop the industry and economy of our country.

But despite this, we should bear in mind that we should try our best not to be affected by the colonial mentality imparted to us by the colonizers, but instead, let us remember that out national language is a symbol of our national unity and identity.

Carisse Anne Apelo Modesto said...

These past few centuries, the English language has been widely used. It has reached different countries, for as far as we can see, it contributes a lot in our daily communication. The English language is used by most of the people here on earth. A lot of different people can communicate well with the use of this language. Many nations are able to understand each other because of the English language.

Though some other countries had not been influenced by the English culture or language, they are able to learn it and use it as a language; primary or secondary maybe. Kachru has defined the variations of native and non-native language as three concentric circles; these are the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. Annika Hohental had explained that the concentric circles represent different ways wherein English has been acquired and used. On the other hand, Judy Yoneaka pointed out that the concentric circles fight for equal recognition of all equal varieties however they are classified and wherever they are found in the world. The Inner Circle refers to the traditional, historical, and sociolinguistic origins of English where it is used as a first native language. The Outer Circle refers to those that have been colonized where the English language is spoken as a secondary if not primary. The Expanding Circle refers to those that recognize the importance of English as a foreign language.

Nowadays, the English language is a necessity for each and every people of this nation. It is widely used. We need to learn it because we need it.

“The concepts of the three concentric circles helps us in understanding the pluralism and institutionalization of English across cultures and languages.”

Arthur Jorem Encinas Gorospe said...

This work is certainly a very informative one. Now I recognize that English language took a very long course in reaching out some parts of the world. Also, being a non-native speaker, I appreciated it even more that I learned its major role in the society, some of its background, how it started and its importance to us. We should be all thankful that English language came to our lives; especially for us non-native speakers for it served as a bridge of communication with our neighboring countries and indeed gave a way for a better understanding, which may someday lead in the future’s success.

And another thing, because of this article, I’ve found out the answer to one of my questions. In this moment, I firmly believe that it is because some of the countries are part of the Expanding Circle, that don’t use English as a second or official language, that is why in some international contests they do have their own interpreters, right? Or maybe they just want to or they don’t really know how speak the language.

Lastly, learning to speak the English language is indeed an advantage, for it is the widely used language and serves as a major communication tool. We should preserve this treasure and make it sure that it will not be a hindrance, nevertheless a better and a cooperative globe.

ALIXANDER HABAN ESCOTE said...

CLASS ADVISORY

Guys, you are supposed to post your reaction not comments per se.

Your reaction must have at the very least a beginning paragraph, a middle paragraph, and an ending paragraph.

Cheers!

Ma. Lorena Gorpido Sebastian said...

It was a fascinating article. By just reading the title of the said piece, I was then become curious of what the piece may comprise. The words “concentric circles” took my attention most. I was inquisitive of what is the relation of concentric circles to the English language. But I mistakenly thought that the title with “concentric circles” in it has nothing to do with mathematics or what so ever. It has something to do on how the English language influences the world, until now.

As written there “the concept of the three concentric circles helps us in understanding the pluralism and the institutionalization of English across cultures and languages”. English is truly an international language. And I am glad that Philippines is incorporated in the outer circle. And there are more than 400 million Filipino English speakers.

Britain helped a lot in spreading the English language. Imagine. Britain colonized about one quarter of the world. It is not just an imagination because it is in veracity. Britain, itself, is a tough one.

And now, we can say that the English language did it. It is even use in schools, houses, offices, streets, etc. It is use everywhere! Philippines, being part of the outer concentric circle, must improve its English skills. Filipino should practice speaking in English more. “Filipino is propagated as a language of literacy and scholarly discourse and a linguistic symbol of national unity and identity (Ho 33).

English is really imperative to every one of us. So, we should give significance to it. And let us make speaking in English a practice.

Christine Joy Ombania de Asis said...

The article shows the development of English language and how it has reached different countries and transformed it into globally competitive ones. It is very informative in such a way that it offers facts and details about the origin of the English language, and how it affects our lives in our society, culture, economy, etc. Further more, it also gives information such as its kinds, the native and non-native speakers, and the countries that use English as a langauge that is only recognized and taught but not became as their official and secondary language. More over, I really liked the way the article was written because it is clear, very detailed and organize, especially the use of circles or "concentric circles" perse as the simbolism of the English invation. Through this comprehensive way of explaining the history and effectiveness of the matter, the readers would understand and appreciate more what is there beyond the English language.

On the other hand, based on what I have reflected, language indeed plays a vital role in our society today, since it serves as a medium to connect ourselves to others and serves as a fuel to our journey to a more competitive world. From the British Empire to the countries it has colonized, no doubt this language has become a part of over 400 million people worldwide. English truly is one of the widely used and spoken language in the world, from classrooms to business trnsactions, from world competitions to politics, English has unquestionably come a long way to open up the globe into a brighter future.

And as Filipino, and a non-native speaker, I am very proud that we have learned to appreciate this language and see its signifance to the society and to the economy. it is indeed very true that when you speak your own language, it symbolizes patriotism and national unity and identity, but when you speak the English language and observe its proper usage, you are an educated one. I hope that we, Filipinos, use this gift from history, as our weapon to reach the peak of development just like other countries such as United States of America and Great Britain. And just imagine, if countries encompassing the expanding circles like China, Korea and Japan became progressive even though they are less literate than we are when it comes to speaking English, what more to our country, the Philippines, which is included in the outer circle and used English as our secondary language?

Bernadette Tadena Guiamoy said...

The English language has been around for centuries. Time and time again, it has evolved into a language that is now being used internationally by the people around us. Many characteristics of the language have changed, as have we. Moreover, we, as users of this tool, improve it so that we can use it more effectively in communication that can cross the boundaries of culture and beliefs.

This paper not only told of the development of the English language, but also how it affects humankind. As first said, it has been used as a medium for communication throughout the world since the seventeenth century. It originated from England and was propagated throughout its empire. Since then, it has affected our ways of living; most specifically through the American culture and civilization.

Since the English language spread out, it has been altered to suit the preferences who speak the language. Countries throughout the world use it as a second language, if not the official one. In our country, the financially stable and above prefer to use it instead of our native tongue. For the average Filipino, the English language is a symbol of aristocracy and high education. The English language is also a symbol for unity. It is taught in schools for the next generation to use it in the future for purposes similar of what the people today have said.

All in all, this paper made me realize the importance of English as a language to us humans and our daily lives. However, English may be the international language but we also have our own.
We should love our own language as much as we want to learn more of the English language. Though the English language may symbolize aristocracy for the average Filipino, it does not mean that the propagation of the Filipino language in school subjects and such should not be encouraged. Rather, it should be cherished for it is our own and ours alone. We should give as much importance to it as much as the international language because it has also affected us the same way.

Claire Malinao Bismark said...

English is one mix of a language, is it not? Not only does it have Greek, Latin, but apparently, it has mathematics too! Imagine, three concentric circles representing the variations of English, both native and not. As an English-speaker, I have to say that this article completely expanded my knowledge on the language that I love. It also convinced me to think that math can be applied to virtually anything!

The writer, Alixander Haban Escote, wrote each paragraph so skilfully. The information came in easy-to-follow sentences. I was spellbound by the simple but surprisingly captivating words. It probably had something to do with the subject being English. I have never really read articles like this before; I found them boring. Frankly, I only read this because it was required. I did not think I would like it later.

The three concentric circles on the variations of English included the Inner circle, Outer circle, and Expanding circle. I personally found this concept intriguing. I had learned that although English really is spoken worldwide, it is still influenced by the countries that use it. Like here in the Philippines, we Filipinos speak English terms with different connotations.

I respect the article very much. It is very thought-provoking and educational. I hope to read articles like this in the future. Or maybe even write some too!

Zatia Denise Danao Gammad said...

At a first glance, the words “three concentric circles” was already imbibed as a mathematical concern. Had not the title contained the word “English”, I would have thought of it as a history of Pythagoras as one of the notable mathematician. And clearly, I was wrong. The existence of these three concentric circles by Kachru made the history of our universal language remarkable.

It was in this article that clarified my thoughts about derivatives and peculiar words brought about by the countries presented in this article. Like what Judy Yoneaka said, “Words and phrases are coined to express key features of the social and physical environment.” Along with the rest of her criteria, this explained the unique mixture that the English language possesses and indeed it must be considered as a global medium. Knowing other countries would be possible in a glimpse of the words they have contributed in the language. Its development has been a high significance to be familiar with for it has traveled across the world, constantly revised and polished in every trip. That’s why it is considered as an international language, if not as a second language. And it serves as the only connection we have with the rest of the world in terms of communication.

Though there have been conflicts, English never failed to sink into education, which serves as the main thrust to literacy. Even if we have mastered our very own language, we should not ignore the English language. I consider it as my personal decoder. Without it, the mysteries of the world would not be explained to every literate person that struggles to decipher information from the four corners of the earth. And I realized that it was also the world that explained the mystifying history of the English language.

Jonah Aileen Oliva Reyes said...

English has now become a universal language. Not only heard in its motherland, it was also claimed as a very significant language for better communication in the modern times. Hundreds of years ago, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth where England achieved its golden age, only one percent of the world’s population used it as a medium of communication. Now, the English language, whether it is the spoken English or the native variety of English, has been spread all over the world, recognized as a highly official global language.


It is not surprising to know these facts only now because of a ton of effects it has brought us. With its easily spoken words, unique style of pronunciation, and classic but linguistically superb sound, people all over the world started to use it in either formal or informal gatherings happening in their societies. Us, Filipinos, who suffered invasion and colonization of the America, has been encouraged to learn and to adapt to it, being fully aware of its importance and usage.


In Kachru’s understanding and study, he stated three concentric circles explaining the varieties and the expansion of the English language. First was the inner circle, which consists of the native speakers where traditions and histories helped it evolve into something the native speakers used and developed English as the native language. On the other hand, the second circle was called the outer circle consists of the countries colonized by the English and Americans. In this circle, Philippines was included. We acknowledged English’s penetration and made it a second language next to our real spoken language nowadays. Lastly, the expanded circle consists of the countries that recognized English as a language for universal, informal, and political affairs.


In our country, Filipinos consider English as a language to use in classrooms as a medium of instruction and education. It has become renowned for the fact that at the early age of our babies, we try to teach them knowing that it is a language of universal communication. English, spoken everywhere in the Philippines, no matter how often and how well symbolizes one’s level of literacy, social awareness and thirst for new learning concerning local and worldwide information.


English, as I see it, mattered too much to recognize it as a foreign language. It is a great significance and great usage acting as another way of expressing thoughts and beliefs a Filipino has. Although not noticed as a typical citizen language, having been raised speaking it has made me proud that I am affected by the English language to become the brilliant student I am today.

Marie Juliebeth Monge said...

I thought at first that this article is about math. Well, I naturally meet the “concentric circles” in that matter. However, this article proved me wrong. I guess, Math… is indeed everywhere. Even in English. And Kachru has proven it.

Throughout the years, English has developed from being a native language to an international lingo used by millions of people around the world today. This article taught me that the language is not only educational, but it is also a key to new experiences, new lands, new culture and a lot more. I guess without the colonization of the Outside circle, I wouldn’t be able to write this reaction paper in English.

This article also tackled about the language as a secondary tongue in most countries. It has been implemented in many government policies, thus making it the means for international and even local communication.

I’m proud to say that even if I am a Filipino, by nature and by blood, I learned a language that could be used globally. However, it does not mean that the dissemination of the Filipino language would be discouraged. We should always remember that our native language is one of the distinctive qualities a Filipino could have. If an American or English can do it, a Filipino can.

Jezel Christine Nolasco Quevada said...

During the early times, English is being spoken by a handful of people but today, billions of people from all over the world are already using the language. May it be for entertainment, business, education, aviation, science, diplomacy or communication, English indeed, is a global medium which connects billions of men. English language is the only language which is used for globalization. It has helped in developing different countries all over the world.

Through this composition or article, I have learned how the English language grew and advanced. It was said that there were three concentric circles called to discuss the spread of English around the world. They were the Inner Circle, Outer Circle and Expanding Circle. These three concentric pointed out where English has been inherited and used. They also explained to us how to understand the institutionalization of English across cultures.

The spread of this global medium began during the time of colonization, particularly by the British Empire. This medium was also used in trades. It was only in the year 1918 that English became an International language and was used by one quarter of the world. Hence, we may say that those who speak the English language were those people who have been colonized or have socialized with the British Empire.

As for the political and educational background about this medium, several countries used it as the language of instruction or perhaps even considered it as their second language just like in the Philippines. I believe that this helped us a lot to communicate well with other people from other countries and be able to negotiate with them. No wonder why we, Filipinos, are known to be good in speaking that foreign language.

True to its given description, the English language is really the lingua franca of the modern era or the language towards globalization. It helps us interact with billions of other races. Thus, it makes it easier for us to understand each country’s cultures and differences. Moreover, this incredible language serves as a vehicle to reach oceans apart and worlds away. The English language acts as a bond to connect one nation to another and help build this world a better place to live in.

Vicson Aypa Mabanglo said...

Honestly, I didn’t expect that this article would talk about the English language. I first thought that it’s about Math. Hence, this article is truly informative. It made me learn facts about our universal language, the English language. The English language, today, really plays a major role not only in our own societies but also in the whole world. It has been a medium of communication for people of different nations to understand each other.

Through this article, I learned that English truly developed from one root, the Old English. Old English had been the root and basis of the “New English” but even though it’s been the root, the “New English” also influenced the Old English. They affected each other since then. In this article, the concept of concentric circles was tackled too. It explained the interaction and development of the English Language. The inner circle represents the Old English, which has been the root. The countries that were included in this inner circle are the countries where the original native Englishes came from. Such as the following countries: Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. The outer circle, on the other hand, is all about the Englishes of the countries, which were influenced by the countries of the inner circle. Some countries that were influenced by the countries of the inner circle are India, Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Jamaica, Zambia, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Bangladesh, South Africa, and the Philippines. In these countries, English language was considered as the second language of the country. Another part of the concentric circle is the expanding circle. In this part, the countries were not colonized yet they treat the English language as an important tool for global communication. Some countries which were included on the expanding circle are as follows : Israel, Japan, China, Egypt, Korea, Nepal, Russia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Zimbabwe, Saudi Arabia, Western Europe, Caribbean countries, and the South African continent. These facts only prove that Old English is truly the root of all “New Englishes”. Hence, “New Englishes” were just influenced by the different countries’ culture.

English language truly developed through time. It has been our universal language and our medium of communication worldwide. Without it, I guess, it’ll be hard for the different nations of the world to understand each other. We should, at least, be thankful enough that we have a universal language. I, as a Filipino that is known worldwide for being a fluent English language speaker, am proud for learning the universal language. I love English! As a Filipino, it has been a part of me.

Marianne Ibale Fuentes said...

The article says that English is the universal language. About 2 billion people in the world speak English as their medium of communication. Some countries even included English in their school curriculum.

It is amazing that Braj Kachru discussed the spread of English around the world in terms of three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. The inner circle refers to traditional historical and socialinguistic origins of English where it is used as a first or native language. The outer circle includes countries colonized by Britain and the United States where English is spoken as a second language and plays an important historical and governmental role in multilingual settings. The expanding circle refers to countries who recognize the importance of English as a foreign language even though some of those countries did not institutionalize English as an official language.

The spread of English is closely related to the expansion of the British Empire. Because Britain became one of the world’s leading trading and industrial nations, Britons were able to spread English to every continent.

Kachru also said that there are two types of linguistic communities: the norm-providing varieties with English as a native and a second language and the norm-dependent varieties with English as a foreign language or an international language.

I noticed that Judy Yoneaka enumerated five criteria to define what makes an English variety: (1) words and phrases are coined to express key features of the social and physical environment; (2) standard and recognizable pattern of pronunciation is handed down from one generation to another generation; (3) literatures were written without apology in the native variety; (4) the variety is peculiar because of the history of the language in the speech materials are published to show people in the speech community what is right and what is wrong.

According to Kachru, the spread of new English was through the classroom, at least initially. English is the medium of instruction in most subjects.

English is very important to our lives. Without it, we would not be able to communicate with people in other countries whose dialects differ from ours, world peace would be hard to achieve, significant discoveries will be isolated in the birth – country of the discoverer, trading would be difficult, and other countries would not be able to help jeopardized countries.

Ma. Beatrice Camille Valencia Gaviola said...

According to this article, English is a continuously spreading and constantly developing language. It is stated that there are now new varieties of English, also called “new Englishes” or “world Englishes”. These new varieties usually have their own styles and coined words.

Braj Kachru, a writer, described the global spread of this language with three concentric circles, namely the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. According to Annika Hohenthal, these circles show the different ways English is acquired and used. Judy Yoneaka explained that these three circles fight for equal recognition no matter which one they are.

Kachru, himself, describes the Inner circle as the origins of English where it is used as a native language. The Outer circle is composed of the countries colonized by the Britain and the United States. Countries that belong in this circle consider English a second language. The outermost circle, called the Expanding circle, is where countries that recognize English as a foreign language belong.

The spread of the English language is closely related to the expansion of the British Empire. Because Britain was one of the most powerful countries then, carrying their language to other continents was not a heavy task. Although the United States colonized various countries too, Britain had already done a lot more than that.

On a smaller scale, the spread of English through classrooms has also played a major role. Although each country has its own reasons for teaching and learning English, it is still propagated as a language of literacy and a symbol of unity.

Karenina Isabel Apilado Lampa said...

English... I guess that it is now absolutely safe to describe it as the most-used language in our world. It could either be used as the official language, a second language or a foreign language, but after reading this, I realized that it does not really make a difference.

Braj Kachru had a very interesting perspective of the English language. But if one would stop to think about it, his three concentric circles really does explain a lot. With these circles, we could easily decipher if the English language in a specific country belonged to the country's native language or the like. The article really offered a lot of information, ranging from the most general detail like the fact that the spread of English comes closely related to the expansion of the British Empire, to the most minute details that there are about 400 million speakers of English in the inner circle, almost seventy percent of which are from the United States.

The inner circle, the outer circle, and the expanding circle... these are the circles that compose Kahru's "Three Conentric Circles". And right now, our own country belongs to the outer circle, wherein Enlish is used as a secondary language. But I honestly cannot help thinking of how surprising it would be if we were able to mesh with the other countries inside the inner circle. Well, I have my fingers crossed. Due to the constant spreading and movement of the aforementioned language, I do not quite doubt my suspicions and I really have my hopes up.

Speaking of the spread of the English language, it really struck me on how far English has travelled. It has reached even the countries of India, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand and a lot of other countries. I must say, the British Empire has really got it going on.

Until now, English still spreads like fire. Kahru said that the spread of new Englishes is through the classroom. In my opinion, Kahru is absolutely right. And I think that this type of exchange would bring out the best.

Here in our country, English is a second language of international communication. It is taught in schools and is a medium of insruction. It is a symbol of our own national unity. In other words, English has become a part of our life. Without it... I think that our world... our country... would have nationwide and worldwide misunderstandings. English really is everything, whether we like it or not.

Jesseca Louise Guibani Torren said...

As I was reading the title, I thought that this article is more about mathematics because of the three concentric circles. I didn't expect that English also have concentric circles like in mathematics.

English language exists for so many years. Many countries is using it as their official language. English language, as we all know is the so-called universal language. It is now the most significant language widely used all over the world.

This article discussed that according to Kachru, there are three concentric circles. These are the Inner Circle, Outer Circle and Expanding Circle. However, these circles show the different ways how English is used. The Inner Circle is about the Old English. It said that this includes the countries whose from the very beginning, English is their native language. On the other hand, Outer Circle refers to the expansion of the English language through the colonization. The Expanding Circle refers to the countries which recognized English as one of the significant language in the world although it is not institutionalize there.

This article really widened my knowledge about the English language. It made me more conscious about the importance of it in our lives.

I'm proud to be a Filipino because in our country, English is also one of the major subjects that should be mastered by the student. It will made us not to be ignorant. It will help us a lot because of the fact that English is the universal language.

Ma Clarissa Garcia Dela Cruz said...

The article “Kachru’s Three Concentric Circles: Variations of Native and Non-native English” is very sophisticated and accurate piece in a way that facts written and where they were read are reflected in it. It shows how English as a language has become a global medium and has been widely spoken even in the reigning times of the sovereign Queen Elizabeth I. It has implanted lots of information to it’s readers about English affecting the world before up to the present time.

The said article presented how English had spread around the world in terms of the three concentric circles. Braj Kachru discussed about it. Annika Hohenthat explained that they represent the different ways how English is used while Judy Yoneaka pointed out that they fight for equal recognition.

I was surprised to know that English has wholly penetrated 60 countries in no time. In its historical context, the article explained how English is closely related from the expansion of British Empire. Through their voyage and adventure in search for colonies. Britain helped spread English beyond original English-speaking colonies. As regards to the rapid expansion of English, American related factors and the acceptance of other countries had done their part.

Nowadays, the spread of English was through the classroom. In the Southeast Asia, it is taught in classrooms for government policies implemented it in certain ways possible. In Philippines, for example. It is taught as a compulsory subject and serves as the second language.

The attitude of the Filipinos towards the acceptance of the language had made possible for us to be included in the outer circle of the so-called concentric circles. I enjoyed reading the article. I found it very interesting and it did gave me a lot of ken on how English become famous like stars in our country.

Erine Emmanuelle Cawaling Hetrosa said...

It is fascinating to know the rise of English as a native language to a medium for international as well as global communication. Due to this so-called ascend in its status, there were variations made as it spread to different countries all over he world.

The post is very informative as well as interesting. It is very remarkable to learn that there are several factors that affect the variety of English among different countries. The Britons unknowingly left traces of their language through their occupation of some parts of the world.

Upon my observation, it is hard to communicate without English (especially with people abroad). English is a part of every Filipino’s life. It is used as a means of communication in educational institutions and work places. As a student, I know that English is a compulsory subject and I admit that I gain a lot from learning it. However, it is sad to know that our own language is less preferred, being termed as “corny”, than the English language.

All in all, the post is great. I learned something out of it. It is well written and very informative.

Karla Costuna Tavares said...

The article was very informative. The variations of native and non-native Englishes were well-explained. It briefly introduced us to the history of the English language.

It also gave us an idea about the three concentric circles that made up the English Language: the inner circle, the outer circle and the expanding circle. Our country, the Philippines, is in the outer circle which means that we use the English language as our second language. Indeed, it is widely used in our country as it is used in schools and quite an important factor in finding an adequate job.

Knowing and understanding the use of the English language is a good advantage and exposes us to many opportunities. Thus, language is universally essential and a known fundamental in taking social, political, cultural, and economic positions.

Julia Nina Somera Moncada said...

The English language has been around for centuries. It is considered as a universal language since it is so widespread. I find this article very interesting. It shows how the English language developed from being spoken by only a few countries into a language spoken by billions if not trillions of people all over the world.

It gives a lot of information on how the English language spread from England to America. And how it spread to Asia through the colonization of countries. Also as the article said, many of these countries have developed their own "version" of the English language. Like the Filipinos have "Taglish,"
Singaporeans have "Singlish," and other forms of English in Asia.

It really was an informative article. I learned a lot from it.

Monique Garcia Rosario said...

In this world, we have different ways of using English language. Why? at first, I really didn't know the answer. I didn't have any idea what this article is all about. I was confused by the title because in my mind, I asked, is this all about Math? or English? I didn't know.

After reading this, I learned so many things. I learned that the development of the English language have reached many countries, including us, the Philippines. The modern English or the "New Englishes" as how they call it, has affected the old style of using English. It has own context of usage and function. The varieties of the English language are represented by three circles. The "Inner Circle", the "Outer Circle" and the "Expanding Circle". I was amazed by how Kachru classified it. I was asking to myself, why did he use circles to represent those different styles in using English? I don't know. Maybe, Circle is the best symbol to represent it. The inner circle is represented by native or traditional way of using the language. The outer circle is represented by the "New Englishes" or the modern style of using it while the expanding circle is represented by those countries that treat English as a foreign language. The Philippines is included in the outer cirle.

Billions of people are now using English as their language. This language is very important so that we can communicate easily with those people living in other country. We can't deny the fact that this is the international or universal language. The expansion of the British Empire and the the colonization of the Britain and United States are big factors why do we have different ways of using English.

In our country, English is a major subject. Although, we are Filipinos, and we have to use our own language which is Tagalog, we also have to learn and use English. English will help us to progress. I am thankful that our country is included in the outer circle because, I know that I will also be affected. By learning English, we will be progressive.

John Colin Estrada Yokingco said...

The article shows how the English language has slowly developed and evolved in the present world. As the article has implied most countries who use it as a second language were once under colonial rule by an English-speaking country. It has also shown how the countries who are directly connected to the Engish colinizers have reacted to the usage of the language.

Over the course of a few hundred years many countries have been used the English language as a tool and not just a language of their former colonial rulers. For example us, the Filipinos. It is recognized and mostly understood by the populace. And in most schools, as stated by the article, is a compulsory subject.

The article is in a rather informative and formal setting. It has given me much incite about the English language and its current relatinship with the world. How it developed and how it is currently used in the present world. The concept of the concentric circles has given me better details about countries that are using the English language and specifically how they use it.

Ma. Rosario Teresa Sararaña Cases said...

English, as we all know, is the universal language. It is until now being taught to people for means of communication but its historical background is seldom mentioned. After reading the article, Kachru's Three Concentric Circles: Variations of Native and Non-Native English, I was astonished at how the article was laid and shown. It was very detailed and informative.

As we studied the history of English during our Junior year, we knew that English came from Britain. After reading the article, I had a clearer view of where English came and how it spread throughout the world. British colonies came to the many parts of the world and strongly carried their language. They influenced people to use their language. Nowadays, English may be considered either as a native, foreign or secondary language.

Learning so many things about the English language, I much more appreciate it now. Although it is only a secondary language for me, it is very important because it is a form of communication to foreign lands. People of today give their gratitude to the English language because it helped them become successful.

John Colin Estrada Yokingco said...

The article shows how the English language has slowly developed and evolved in the present world. As the article has implied most countries who use it as a second language were once under colonial rule by an English-speaking country. It has also shown how the countries who are directly connected to the Engish colonizers have reacted to the usage of the language.

Over the course of a few hundred years many countries have been using the English language as a tool and not just a language of their former colonial rulers. For example us, the Filipinos. It is recognized and mostly understood by the populace. And in most schools, as stated by the article, is a compulsory subject.

The article is in a rather informative and formal setting. It has given me much incite about the English language and its current relationship with the world. How it developed and how it is currently used in the present world. The concept of the concentric circles has given me better details about countries that are using the English language and specifically how they use it. All in all it is a good article and should be read by those individuals who wish to gain more knowledge about the English language.

Bernadette Bunao Orgen said...

It is true that the English language has been a major language spoken by almost all the people all over the world. The concept of the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle or termed Three Concentric Circles made me understand how this language was acquired, introduced, and used by native and non-native speakers.

Since the English language is spoken by different kinds of tongues, it is expected that the language had many variations. That mainly is the reasons why we have the British accent, the American accent, or why the words like realize, analyze and prioritize can be spelled as realise, analyse, and prioritise, respectively. It is true that the language is used by different countries with different reasons, interests, and strategies.

May it be a native, a secondary or a foreign language, English has affected a lot in realizing the similarities, distinctions, happenings and events around us. It has been a part of the world’s civilization. English is the universal language known to all. It is the key for every people to understand every nation’s politics, culture, government, education, and way of thinking. Truly, English language deserves to be loved and appreciated.

Rachel Mae Joan Naluis Sansolis said...

Because of my mathematical inclination, I thought that the article was about Mathematics, specifically, about Geometry. The title made me think of that thing. Unfortunately, I was wrong. The article is undeniably explaining everything about the evolution, improvement and the spread of the English language. It shows the development of English language and how it has reached different places where in it was transformed into a globally competitive one.

The idea of the concentric circles is really amazing. It was such a nice thing that Braj Kachru discussed the spread of English around the world in terms of three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. Who would have thought of something like that if you weren’t someone who knows a lot about it? The article brought knowledge to me for it seemed like a free access to the background of the English language. I can say that the concept of concentric circles contributed a lot to our country especially in the field of communication. Certainly, the English language is widely used in conversing with other people and teaching, most appropriately. Though it is not our primary language, it still helps. Actually, I believe that no matter what language is used, unity can still exist. We are easily taught for most of us are fast learners. That is an advantage, indeed. With the luck, we are fortunate enough that we were given only a few varieties of language which enable us to understand each other easily. We apparently see the wide range of usage when it comes to speaking.

As I have reflected, language indeed plays an important role in our society today, since it serves as the instrument for us to have connections with everyone around us. It also serves as the source of the actions that would bring us closer to the new world, as we see as how competitive it is. From the British Empire to the countries it has colonized, no doubt this language has become a part of over 400 million people worldwide. English is really evident among the widely used and spoken languages in the world.

To sum it all up, as a Filipino, it is an incentive that we appreciate the use of the English language even we have our own. It is definitely straight forward that we possess nationalism and patriotism if we know how to use our own language with respect and the like. Moreover, the article made me understand the importance, the use and the effects of every language that continuously adding up to our systems. I learned a lot from this post.

Monique Garcia Rosario said...

In this world, we have different ways of using English language. Why? At first, I really didn't know the answer. I didn't have any idea what this article is all about. I was confused by the title because in my mind, I asked, is this all about Math? Or English? I didn't know.

After reading this, I learned so many things. I learned that the development of the English language have reached many countries, including us, the Philippines. The modern English or the "New Englishes" as how they call it, has affected the old style of using English. It has own context of usage and function. The varieties of the English language are represented by three circles. The "Inner Circle", the "Outer Circle" and the "Expanding Circle". I was amazed by how Kachru classified it. I was asking to myself, why did he use circles to represent those different styles in using English? I don't know. Maybe, Circle is the best symbol to represent it. The inner circle is represented by native or traditional way of using the language. The outer circle is represented by the "New Englishes" or the modern style of using it while the expanding circle is represented by those countries that treat English as a foreign language. The Philippines is included in the outer circle.

Billions of people are now using English as their language. This language is very important so that we can communicate easily with those people living in other country. We can't deny the fact that this is the international or universal language. The expansion of the British Empire and the colonization of the Britain and United States are big factors why do we have different ways of using English.

In our country, English is a major subject. Although, we are Filipinos, and we have to use our own language which is Tagalog, we also have to learn and use English. English will help us to progress. I am thankful that our country is included in the outer circle because, I know that I will also be affected. By learning English, we will be progressive.

J'zarine Chris Valles Lobo said...

The article “Kachru’s Three Concentric Circles” is an informative literary piece for it gives lots of information or facts on how English language has clambered throughout the world and how it is widely spoken by less than two billion people worldwide. It shows how English language has become a linguistic apparatus, a global medium with local messages and identities.

According to the article, Braj Kachru was the one who discussed the spread of English language around the world. He discussed it in terms of three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. The Inner Circle refers to traditional origins of English where it is used as a first or native language. On the other hand, the Outer Circle includes countries colonized by Britain and the United States where English is spoken as a second language and plays an important historical and governmental role on their multilingual settings. The Expanding Circle did not institutionalize English as an official language but recognized the importance of English as a foreign language.

I was already aware that English has been spoken as a second language and is maintained as a language of international communication in our country knowing that we were colonized by United States hundreds years ago. It is our privilege being colonized by those countries and engulfs their culture. Since English language is a universal language; we will not be able to communicate with other people across the globe if we do not know how to speak English. Just like what’s happening in other countries included in the Expanding Circle, it is hard to communicate with them. While watching beauty pageants like Miss Earth or Miss Universe, I notice that participants of countries like Japan and China need an interpreter an interpreter to understand the question as well as to answer it.

Nowadays, English language is spread in the region through education and other means. In the Philippines, it is taught as a compulsory subject and is a medium of instruction in all subjects from primary to tertiary schools.

To sum it all up, the article is very entertaining and it gives the readers sufficient information about English language. It also unmasks historical, political and educational context on how English language has affected the lives of every people across the world!

Mark Tristan Angelo Morena Cabatac said...

At first, I thought that this article is about Mathematics, because of its title. I can say that this article is very informative. It shows the evolution and importance of the language of English.

English greatly spread through the colonization of the British Empire. They conquered the Asia and Africa, expanding the English language throughout these continents. The continents that were colonized are included in the second circle, which is the outer circle, meaning, the said language became their secondary language in their place. The first circle, called the inner, which means that it is from the original countries that conquered the other countries. And the last, expanding circle, which can be found in countries that were not colonized by the British Empire.

From this, I can conclude that English really is a vital part of our life. Learning this language gives you a great advantage not only in our country, but also when you go to other countries because this language serves as our way of trading and communicating with other countries, making our bonds stronger.

Monica May Reluya Sta. Ana said...

The article, titled "Kachru's Three Concentric Circles: Variations of Native and non-Native English," has really implanted in us a lot of information about the stand of English in our world yesterday and today. It tells about how English penetrates 60 countries, thus resulting in native and non-native varieties.

I was very surprised at how English has affected many of the countries we know today. Braj Kachru, Annika Hohenthal, and Judy Yoneaka introduced and discussed the three concentric circles. These three are mainly the inner circle, the outer circle, and the expanding circle. The inner circle refers to those countries which use English as a first or native language. The outer circle refers to countries which use English as a second language. The Philippines is included in this category. The last circle, the expanding circle, refers to countries which consider English as a foreign language.

I think the Filipinos' open-mindedness on this matter has been the reason for us to become part of the outer circle. I really enjoyed reading this article because it has given me many facts about the English language including its historical, poiltical, and educational context.

Jenny Marie Uno Porazo said...

As we all know, today, the English language is commonly used as a medium of instruction and communication, especially in the Philippines. The English language has helped us in countless ways, may it be on oral or written communication. This article clearly states the variations and differences between the English language and our own native tongue.

For me, the article is remarkable. It is very informative. After I have read the article, I was so dumbfounded. Truly, the English language has evolved from time to time. This article helped me understand the role of the English language in every aspect of our lives. It made me realize that English language has truly evolved from the past generations. The article clearly stated the historical contexts of the English language. According to the article, the English language was used by the countries that the British and Americans colonized. Examples of these countries are India, Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Jamaica, Zambia, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Bangladesh, South Africa, and the Philippines. The article also tackled about the three concentric circles that represent different ways where English has been acquired. This information made me think about how the Philippines used English everyday. For me, we must really pursue on learning the correct usage of the English language for our own good. Since English is considered as the universal language of our modern times, it would be convenient for us to learn it by heart. In that way, we could easily communicate with the people across the world. Although English is a very helpful language, we must never forget our own language, the Filipino language, because it is our spring board to reach higher levels of understanding. The Filipino language is our foundation and we will truly use it along with the English language.

I agree that this article is very factual and in season because of the increasing percentage of English speakers not only nationwide but also worldwide. This article really left its mark in my mind. I will bear in mind all the things I learned in this article and maybe I can use it in the near future.

Kevin David Balanay Bulanhagui said...

I learned that the English language has variations for the native and non-native speakers. Nowadays, the non-native speakers had already outnumbered the native ones and they already have made their own rules, some pronunciations, use and even dictionary variations. The non-native speakers or the so called “New Englishes” had already contributed much to the natives.

I also learned Braj Kachru’s concept about the three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle in which the Inner Circle is composed of the real English, the Outer Circle of the “New Englishes” and the Expanding Circle of those countries which just recognize the English language as an international language but do not speak it often.

I saw the transition of the English language from the Elizabethan period to the twentieth century and from there, I could say that the language, from a simple native dialect, has enrolled and grew to become a powerful means of communication not only used in English-speaking countries but also in English adapted countries.

Upon reading the article, I learned the importance of the English language and how time had enriched it to become the language we came to know. Indeed, the English language deserves to be the universal international language among others.

Ma. Shiela Luzon Magistrado said...

At first I thought that it was about mathematics and such but, well of course, I was wrong. It was all about the variations of English, how did English became a langauage used by almost all the countries and how did it spred wide throughout the world.

As stated in the text, variation of English language appears in three concentric circles. The inner circle, mainly composed of the ones who use English as their native language like Britain, Canada and the like. The outer circle composed of those countries which uses English as their second langauage. Like the Philippines, English plays an important role mainly in our education and we use it as our second langauge. The expanding circle is described as those countries who treat English as an important language in their country.

English, as said in the context, spread throughout the world by the colonization of either Britain, United States or any English-speaking country. The colonization only means that the place under that country will be accustomed to their culture and get their way of speaking as well.

The English language is really an important language for all of us. Mainly because of the fact that it is used by almost all countries and is spoken by almost all people around the world. As for us Filipinos it has helped us a lot, especially in our schooling and it help us in finding jobs.

All in all I Learned a lot from the article and it helped me to have a new point of view on English language

Marianne Ibale Fuentes said...

Based on the article, English language is now spreading all over the world. The native English is now preserved to certain countries like Britain, Canada, Australia and other countries where this language originated. I would say that the English language, whether native or not, is now ruling the entire world. It is the most widely used language in different parts of the country although some countries like China and Korea did not institutionalize English as an official language and belong to the Expanding Circle.

Kachru's opinion about how the English language was spread is very logical and understanding. He definitely arranged and organized the countries in what circle they belong and what English language they are using now. He distinguished the countries where the native language, English, originated. He also informed us that the concept of the three concentric circles will help us to understand the use of the English language across cultures and traditions.

The five criteria to define what makes an English variety are what the students must learn. Judy Yoneaka gave these criteria to inform us students that having the English language will make our vocabularies more complex and will make our speech communication better.

Basically, English language is now the instrument in communicating with other people. Right now in our country, English is a second language and is maintained as a language of international communication. It is indeed the medium of instruction in schools and the most widely used language all over the world.

Driesch Lucien Rabi Cortel said...

English, being the universal language, really helped our global economy to advance through communicating with each other. Whether as a second language or a foreign language, English takes a big part for the different nations to have worldwide compassion.

I believe that everyone should learn to speak and understand English fluently because even the sign posts, shampoo bottles, computers and instructions in medicine bottles are all detailed in English. Even though English is divided into varieties, it is still considered as the English language known to almost every country in the planet. I think that the spread of English was quiet fast. Not only because the colonizers persuade their colonies but because they need it as merchants, they need it for their government or maybe they need it to simply communicate from other nations.

According to Braj Kachru, there are three concentric circles that classify the English language being spoken around the globe. He considers the three concentric circles as the inner circle which refer to the socio linguistic and historical variety of English, the outer circle was referred as the English considered by the colonized country like ours and, lastly, the expanding circles that did not made English as an official language yet considered the importance of English language.

I think that wherever we go, speaking and understanding English is a must. It is within our community, in our history and especially in our studies.

Dominique Josine Gonzales Directo said...

The article is very informative. The ideas presented in it are well-defined and well-organized. I am also quite taken by the information I have just read. I never really knew that the English language had so many evolutions. From 17th century, it has not stopped spreading its territory. More and more countries are taking English as a specific medium of communication. Although there are some negative things connecting English with political ideologies and strategies for power, we can not deny the impact of having a universal language amongst world leaders and international affairs and representatives. It provided us the comfort of understanding world issues that are being debated across so many countries.

The article also thoroughly discussed other contexts of the English language globally. Looking at how the world is developing in this technological age, language has played a major role in the expansion of different ideas. This article definitely motivated me to look at some things or another perspective. If it wasn’t for the Philippine government’s promulgation of the English language, our country and our people would definitely have a harder time what with all the crises.

Well, this article definitely overwhelmed my mind with facts and my own sudden overflow of ideas.

Marian Denise Glipo Basallote said...

The English language rooted from an interesting history. The universal language was brought into existence a long, long time ago and it was further recognized by various countries around the world during the 16th century. The three concentric circles gave a clear depiction of the incorporation of English into the myriad of cultures and traditions within the global society.

The English language is utilized as a medium of instruction by almost every country, in varying ways, such that some nations treat it as their native language while others consider it as their secondary language. At whichever angle you look at it, English is given great importance, either as a first or foreign language, by many countries. English is highly-regarded because of its continuing spread around the world through the aid of media’s power.

Through the political, sociolinguistic, political and educational contexts of English, I was given a comprehensive background on the English language. I discovered that problems arose regarding the traditional dichotomy of native and non-native varieties. These conflicts were resolved through the recognition of a multicultural English in a spirit of equality.

I found the article informative and educational. It enriched my knowledge with helpful facts.
It made me realize the profound depth of the English language.

Jose Mari Hall Lanuza said...

This article about the spread of variations of native and non-native English is very informative and interesting. I never knew that there are concentric cirlces that are used to represent the use of the English language in different countries. It presented a lot of facts about the spread of the English language, its uses in different countries today, and also the different communities that use or ignore the language.

By reading this article, I learned more about the history and uses of the language, both currently and in the past. I was also impressed at the detail and effort put into this article. The reader can really tell that the person who wrote this article spent much time researching on the facts about the language. This article was really the product of hardwork and perseverance, and determination to know more about the language, and the desire to share and impart that knowledge to others.

The English language is meant to be studied and spoken by both native and foreign tongues. Through this literary piece, we, as Filipino high school students learned so much about the language that we consider as a secondary language. Maybe before, all English meant to us was a basic subject and a language used to impress others. But because of this literary piece, we now know more about the once foreign, now native language we call English.

Karez Amparo Martin said...

The rapid increase of English-speaking people from the sixteenth century until today is indeed apparent. In just about ten centuries, their population has increased over a thousandth as much as it was before. Furthermore, I think that it is inevitable for the increase rate of the non-native speakers to be a lot faster compared to the increase rate of the native speakers. This is because of the ability and power of the British and Americans to influence other countries.

Understanding the different varieties of the English language is made easier through Braj Kachru’s Three Concentric Circles. These three concentric circles explain how and why all the variations of the English language came into existence. I can now tell why despite the fact that countries like the United Kingdom and the United States only speak the same language, they still speak it in a different way and manner. And because Philippines and Australia belong to different circles, one can easily distinguish the people of each country by listening to the way they speak the language.

I am not being biased or anything, but I feel honored that our country is part of the outer circle. It is not about having that colonial mentality trait; rather, it is more of being proud to be proficient and competent with other countries in an area or two. The English language is an internationally used language; and being adept in using such language is one of the things that a man can be proud of. Not all countries and nationalities are as skilled as the Filipinos in terms of speaking and writing the English language; so let us all challenge ourselves and be more capable in using the language. No one knows; but this language might help our country in reaching its golden age.

Hazel Galiza Hernandez said...

The article "Kachru's Three Concentric Circles: Variations of Native and Non-Native English" helps its readers to understand more about the English language. It elaborates everything that everyone needs to know about this language. Upon reading this article, I have known where English has deeply penetrated. I have also learned the two varieties of the English language, which are the Native and the Non-Native varieties. This article also made Braj Kachru, whom I have not really heard of before, familiar to me. Now I know that he was the one who discussed the spread of English around the globe in terms of the three concentric circles, namely the inner, the outer and the expanding circle. I have also read the history of the English language and it gave me an idea on how it came into existence. Also, the article talked about how the language is used as the first and second language in some countries and how its significance is recognized by other countries.

English, indeed, is important in every part of the world. It is used as the world's medium language and it gives way for the unity and understanding of many different countries and their people.

Therese Romaine Nalangan Rustia said...

After reading Kachru’s Three Concentric Circles: Variations of Native and Non- Native English, I found out that English plays a big role in our society today, knowing that it is the international language. I was surprised that it had variations, which were shown through Braj Kachru’s concept on the three concentric circles. These are the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. With these three variations, I discovered that many countries learn and recognize English, but not all necessarily study it or use it as their native language. Influences made by the British and American colonies had a great impact on many countries.

There are also 5 criteria enumerated by Judy Yoneaka that defines what makes an English variety. These show that the English language could be used not only as a primary language, but also as a second language or as a foreign language. With that, it could be used for the “expression of national identity and for communication across cultural and sociolinguistic boundaries.”

In our country, English is used and maintained as our second language. Aside from that, it is also used as the medium of instruction in all subject areas except other language subjects. For me, English is very significant because it is a symbol of unity all throughout the world.

Jhoan Amuten Encarnacion said...

The article titled “Kachru’s Three Concentric Circles: Variations of Native and Non-Native English” by Mr. Alixander Haban Escote is very informative and impressive. It discussed about the spread of English language around the world through Braj Kachru’s three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer circle and the Expanding Circle. It tackles the historical, sociolinguistic, and political and educational contexts of English. Also, it points out the different countries that use English as their native language, second language or simply recognize the importance of it as a foreign language. Based form the article, I can say that English indeed influenced millions of people around the world.

The first part of the article states about the growing number of English speakers since the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. I agree with this fact because if we will try to observe, as time pass by, English is used as an international language. Wherever you go or whatever you do, most people will understand and communicate with you using this language. The three concentric circles part expanded my knowledge about the different countries that belong to the Inner Circle, the Outer circle and the Expanding Circle. Aside from our country Philippines, where English is used as a second language, now I know that India, Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Jamaica, Zambia, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Bangladesh and South Africa also belong to the Outer Circle. I also learned the different countries that recognize the importance of English as a foreign language that belongs to the Expanding Circle. In the historical context of the article, I believe that as Britain extends its empire, along with the spread of American culture and civilization, the English language also dominated countries that were seized by the British Empire. In the sociolinguistic context, Judy Yoneaka’s five criteria to define English as a variety are very informative. Also, the shift of terminologies will really make people confused and it is a broad ideology but makes sense and is essential. In the political and educational contexts, I agree that most of the subjects taught in school use English as the medium of instruction. However, I noticed that some students cannot even speak or write English directly. While those English talking children are the ones who can communicate and actively participate in school. So, I can say that English is not that easy to use but if you learn and practice it, being an excellent speaker and writer would not be too far to reach.

In conclusion, this article tells us about how English developed and how it is globally recognized. In my opinion, this international language is the best way to communicate and understand each other whatever color and culture you have. Through this medium, it lessens the confusion and misunderstanding among different nations. We should keep using it in our lives but at the same time, never forget what makes us great people. It’s not only by how good we speak this language but also how unique and amazing our truly own language is.

Lavinia Lyka Lim Lopez said...

Good morning Mr. Alixandter Haban Escote. Marianne Ibale Fuentes made a mistake. The first article of Marianne Ibale Fuentes is Lavinia Lyka Lim Lopez's article. The second article named Marianne is the genuine article of Marianne.

Alexi Erlyn Sta. Ana Carlos said...

The article widened the scope of my knowledge about the English language. It showed the vast spread of the said language in relation with the three concentric circles to be exact the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. With the help of the concentric circles, I can say that learning more about this language is a lot easier.

It was so fascinating to know how English progressed from a native language to a linguistic apparatus and a global medium with local messages and identities. I was so happy that I knew more about this language because it is really a factor for the development of a certain place. May it be in political, educational and in other field as well.

This made me realize how magnificent this language is. Through this, communication is made easier. Despite our differences, this language makes us one. I can’t imagine life without this language.

Kerwin Russel Galang Alvia said...

To start with, I think the construction and development of the article is fine. Though many words in the article are big, such as sociolinguistic and pluricentric, and some of the ideas were rather too weighty to fathom, I did not find the whole prose to be verbose and difficult to understand—the repeated existence of context clues helped.

However, I think the relevance of the article was a little purely scholastic.

I think the connection of the analogy of the three circles and the English speakers to the history of the British spread all over the world was well established, and the whole thought that the spread of the English language was directly associated to the expansion of British influence was informative. However, I think that the knowledge is useful only academically.

Moreover, I think that the idea of the division of the three concentric circles was also a developed design to effectively formulate the relation of the influence of the spread of language to native and non-native speakers, where the three concentric circles effectively described the methods and consequences of learning English as a native, a second, or a foreign language. Though the idea may contribute to sociolinguistic, economic, political, and educational aspects, I still think that the knowledge is for academic improvement and scholastic enhancement.

Jessica leal manalili said...

The English language is regarded as a universal language. It is used as a medium of communication in most parts of the world but the history behind it is not that known. The spread of the English language was described by Braj Kachru in terms of the three concentric circles: the inner circle, the outer circle and the expanding circle.

The inner circle is comprised of the original countries and states that used English as their primary language, in other words, the native speakers. The outer circle is that of countries colonized by those included in the inner circle, whereas these countries have adapted the use of the English language though not as their primary language, including non-native speakers. The expanding circle is composed of those countries that regarded the English language as an important part of communication that even though it is foreign they adapt and use it to maximize their resources.

Knowledge about the history and development of the english language is essential to both native and non-native speakers. This article has instilled in the minds of its readers the importance of the language and its historical background. "Practice makes perfect" and continuous practice and usage of the language will improve not only our speaking and communication skills but also contribute to the "new english" rules. Who knows? We might be contributors of these new rules in the English language.

Colene Pabruada Cabaliza said...

The article has clearly shown the development and expansion of the English language all over the years. From a language spoken only by a small number people, the said language now is being used by almost 2 billion people in 60 different countries. English has indeed progressed to a language used worldwide.

Through this article, I have learned a lot more about the English language: its history, expansion, varieties and importance. Kachru’s concentric circles discussed about how the language came into existence and later was used by the people belonging to those different circles. The origins of the English language, also referred to as the ‘inner circle’, are composed of countries with native speakers. The English language, which is now growing continually in the ‘outer circle’ through its use in educating students, was originally spread by means of the colonization of the British Empire to other countries. It is now used by countries of the said circle as their secondary language. The expanding circle consists of countries which study English because they recognize its importance as the basis for international communication.

Many things paved the way for the continuation of the advancements of the language. Modern technology, scientific researches and influences made by the political powers of the United States are some of those. Be it by one way or another, English is now globally used for a lot of other things aside from being the channel for connecting individuals of different races.

It is such a privilege for us, Filipinos, to have English as a secondary language. Through it we made dealings and transaction with people of other nationalities easier. Through it, we understand each other better.

We can never measure how much the English language contributed to our well-being. But it is really true that with its help, we made bonds with foreign people, removed the gaps between countries and made interaction with people of other races and colors possible. Through it, we understood each of our similarities and differences and attained unity with its aid. After all, English is still a continuously spreading and constantly developing language.

Vladimir Paat Villegas said...

The article "Kachru's Three Concentric Circles" is such an awakening for all the English speakers of the world for me.

No one could ever imagine how a genius like Braj Kachru could explain everything further, thus differentiating the native and non-native English, so that we would determine if we would still improve our tongues.

Another fascinating thing regarding this article was that a point was given that there were different factors for us to have those tongues that we now have. Imagine how the cited authors really researched those things just to elaborate the concept of the English language.

But for me, what was more amazing in this article was that it was a big leap for our publication because it used the Modern Language Association documentation format, just to say that the work is thoroughly researched and worth the reading of students.

liezl escano lopez said...

"Reading the title of the article, I thought it was about mathematics but as I read the whole passage, I realized that it tackles about the development of the English language from a native language to an international language used as a medium.

Clearly, English language has influenced many nations since the history just like how it colonizes my own country, Philippines. The mark left by the British Empire had greatly contributed in spreading the said language. As this language is handed down from one generation to another, it has undergone alteration due to the factors that were clearly stated in the article. These series of developments came to the formation of what they call new English.

By this article, I learned about the important roles of historical, sociolinguistic, and political and educational contexts to the development of the English language in the present day. I am glad to know these important facts about this language which brought a big difference in the world for it binds all nations into one creating understanding and connections despite of cultural differences."

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

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